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The Marvel of FFF 3D Printing: Unraveling the Layers of Innovation

Introduction: What is FFF 3D Printing? Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), commonly known as FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), is a popular additive manufacturing process. The technique involves depositing material layer by layer to create a three-dimensional object. By melting and extruding thermoplastic filament, the FFF printer methodically crafts models from the ground up.

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FFF 3D Printer vs Fdm 3d printer

It seems there might be a bit of confusion. The terms “FFF” and “FDM” both describe the same 3D printing technology, but they are used by different entities due to trademark reasons.

  1. FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling):
    • This term is trademarked by Stratasys, a leading company in the 3D printing industry.
    • When people refer to FDM printers, they’re usually referring to machines that deposit melted filament layer by layer to create a 3D object.
    • Most commercial 3D printer companies and users employ the term FDM colloquially, even if they aren’t using Stratasys machines.
  2. FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication):
    • FFF is the term used by those who want to describe the same filament-based 3D printing process without using the trademarked term (FDM).
    • In essence, FFF and FDM are identical in their functionality and process.
    • The open-source community, in particular, tends to use FFF to avoid potential trademark issues.


  • Technology: Both FDM and FFF refer to the same technology, where a thermoplastic filament is heated, extruded through a nozzle, and deposited layer by layer to form a 3D object.
  • Naming: The primary difference is in naming rights. FDM is trademarked by Stratasys, while FFF is a term used by others in the industry to refer to the same process without infringing on the trademark.
  • Usage: While professionals familiar with the industry might use the terms interchangeably, you might see FFF used more frequently in open-source communities and FDM in more commercial contexts.

In conclusion, when comparing FDM vs. FFF, you’re essentially looking at two different names for the same 3D printing process. The choice of terminology often comes down to trademark considerations rather than any difference in the technology itself.

The Mechanics Behind FFF Printing

  • The Printing Process: FFF starts by feeding a thermoplastic filament through a heated nozzle, which then prints the molten material onto the build platform.
  • Layer by Layer: The nozzle moves precisely along specified coordinates, depositing material and building the model one layer at a time.
  • Support Structures: For complex models with overhangs or bridges, the printer lays down temporary support structures, which can be removed post-printing.

Materials in FFF Printing: Diversity and Utility

  • PLA (Polylactic Acid): Biodegradable and user-friendly, ideal for beginners.
  • ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene): Tough and durable, preferred for functional parts.
  • PETG (Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol): Combines the ease of PLA with the strength of ABS.
  • Specialty Filaments: Wood, metal-infused, and flexible filaments offer unique finishes and properties.

Applications: From Prototyping to Production

  • Rapid Prototyping: Designers and engineers can swiftly create prototypes for testing and validation.
  • Educational Tools: Schools and universities employ FFF printers to teach design and engineering concepts.
  • Household Items: From artistic models to functional everyday objects, the possibilities are endless.
  • Custom Components: Businesses and hobbyists can produce bespoke parts tailored to specific needs.

Pros and Cons of FFF 3D Printing

  • Pros:
    • Cost-Effective: Generally, FFF printers are more affordable than other types of 3D printers.
    • Material Availability: A wide variety of filaments are available in the market.
    • User-Friendly: Many FFF printers cater to both beginners and professionals.
  • Cons:
    • Layer Lines: Printed objects often show visible layer lines, requiring post-processing for a smooth finish.
    • Support Removal: Cleaning up and removing support structures can be time-consuming.
    • Material Limitations: FFF primarily uses thermoplastics, limiting the range of potential materials when compared to other printing technologies.

Future of FFF Printing: Where Are We Headed?

While FFF printing continues to be a dominant force in the consumer 3D printing market, it is also witnessing constant innovations. With the advent of multi-material and multi-color printing, smarter slicing software, and improved hardware, FFF’s horizon is broadening. The future might witness even faster print speeds, enhanced material properties, and an even wider range of applications.

The best FFF 3D printers in the Town

The best FFF (or FDM) printers often vary based on user needs, preferences, and the particular applications they’re intended for. However, as of my last update in January 2022, here are five highly-regarded FFF printers across different price points and purposes:

1. Prusa i3 MK3S/MK3S+ Pros:

  • Open-Source: A strong community contributes to the machine’s continuous improvements.
  • Reliability: Known for consistent prints.
  • Features: Includes features like filament sensors, magnetic removable bed, and power recovery.
  • Kit or Pre-assembled: Offers users the choice to assemble it themselves or buy pre-assembled.


  • Price: Might be higher than other printers with similar build volumes.
  • Wait Times: Due to high demand, there can be shipping delays.

2. Creality Ender 3 V2 Pros:

  • Affordability: One of the best values for its price.
  • Upgrades from Original: Improved stability, quieter operation, and a carborundum glass platform.
  • Community Support: A large community provides ample resources, mods, and solutions.


  • Calibration: Might require frequent bed leveling.
  • Upgrades Needed: While it works great out of the box, many users invest in upgrades for optimal performance.

3. Ultimaker S3/S5 Pros:

  • Dual Extrusion: Can print with two materials/colors simultaneously.
  • Reliability: Highly dependable for consistent prints.
  • Software: Comes with proprietary software that integrates well with the printer.
  • Enclosed Design: Helps in printing materials that are sensitive to environmental factors.


  • Price: On the pricier side, catering more to professionals or businesses.
  • Material Cost: Proprietary filament can be more expensive.

4. LulzBot TAZ Workhorse Pros:

  • Large Build Volume: Suitable for bigger projects.
  • Open-Source: Provides flexibility in terms of software and materials.
  • Durability: Designed for high-volume printing with minimal maintenance.


  • Size: Requires a considerable amount of space.
  • Price: Higher cost, but justified by its features and capabilities.

5. Artillery Sidewinder X1 Pros:

  • Large Build Volume: Allows for larger prints.
  • Quiet Operation: Features silent stepper motor drivers.
  • Direct Drive Extruder: Can handle flexible filaments more easily.
  • Touchscreen Interface: Modern and user-friendly UI.


  • Weight: It’s on the heavier side.
  • Firmware: Some users opt to upgrade or change the firmware for better performance.

Always keep in mind that the “best” printer largely depends on individual needs. A printer perfect for a hobbyist might not meet the demands of a business and vice versa. Always review the most current reviews, consider your specific needs, and possibly test a machine before purchasing.

Conclusion: FFF – A Pillar of 3D Printing Fused Filament Fabrication has indeed revolutionized the world of additive manufacturing. Its accessibility, affordability, and versatility make it a favorite among hobbyists and professionals alike. As technology evolves, it’s clear that FFF will continue to play a foundational role in the 3D printing universe, bringing ideas to life one layer at a time.

About the Author:

Manny Acharya is the co-founder of Artmellows. Your go-to place for Design, Digital Art, Digital sculpting, Photography, Design Tools and gears Info, and Product Reviews. Manny is a Digital Artist, 3D Sculpt Designer, Ardent Photography, Drone flying Enthusiast, and tech Lover. He supercharges Digital Art and design by crafting memorable 3D sculptures & 2D Design and art. Learn more About Manny:

PS: Manny has created a Beginner Friedly ebook to Learn the Nomad 3D Sculpt App. Know More about the eBook. Know more about Manny

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